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Glossary of Terms

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Airless Pump - A pump that contains a gasket which moves up the chamber under vacuum pressure allowing the product to be dispensed.

Aluminum - A silver-white metallic element, light in weight, ductile, malleable, and not readily corroded or tarnished,

Amber - A brown color of glass or plastic containers; often used to protect the contents of the container from exposure to light.

Application Cap - Closure designed to be used to apply the contents of a container.

Applicator Rod - Lid with attached rod in which the rod is used to apply the contents of a container.

Atomizer - A device for reducing liquids to a fine spray.

 

Bottle - A portable container for holding liquids, characteristically having a neck and mouth and made of glass or plastic.

Bail - A part of a toggle closure device that is connected to the lever wire and passes over the lid holding it in place on the container.

Bar Top Cork - A stopper made by gluing natural corks (or synthetic corks) to decorative plastic or wooden tops; also known as T Corks

Base - The bottom of the container; the surface upon which the container stands.

Bead - The raised ridge on a bottle located between the screw-threads and the shoulder; also known as a Collar.

Beveled Edge - Term used in describing the narrow, flattened edge between two wider flat, perpendicular sides of a rectangular or square container.

Blister – Large air bubble in glass.

Body - Sidewall of a container between the top and the bottom.

Bubbles - Variably sized and shaped air or gas pockets in glass.

Bucket - Deep, cylindrical vessel, usually of metal, plastic, or wood, with a flat bottom and a semicircular bail

Bulb - The rubber, squeezable part of a dropper assembly which is used to suction fluids into the pipette.

 

Calibrated - Divided or marked with gradations, graduations, or other indexes of degree, quantity, etc.

Canning Jar - Glass jar in which food is preserved, typically having a wide mouth for access; sometimes called Fruit Jars.

Capacity - The maximum amount of volume a container will hold.

Capsule - Lead or tinfoil (or sometimes plastic) secondary cover closure used to cover the closure and finish of a bottles product.

Check – A tiny crack, usually caused by contact of hot glass with a cold surface.

Child Resistant Closure (CRC) - Closure requiring dissimilar motions which makes removal by a child difficult. Child resistant closures are subject to current government regulations.

Chill marks - Irregular, often undulating, wrinkles or ripples on the surface of a glass container usually caused by a cold metal mold or the action of a pressing plunger.

Circumference - The outer boundary or perimeter of a circular area.

Clarity - Freedom of haze or cloudiness in plastic material.

Closure – Any structure or device, such as a cap, cork, seal or stopper used to close off the opening of a container; and contain its contents, prevent contamination and leakage.

Closure Height - Overall height of the closure, measured from the closure top to the open end of the closure.

Closure Skirt - The vertical wall of a closure; also see Skirt.

Coating - A thin layer of lacquer, varnish, or other organic material applied to the surface of a container.

Cobalt - A blue color of glass or plastic containers; often used to protect the contents of the container from exposure to light.

Cocking - Mis-application of a closure to a container. Closure will appear uneven on the container or is pulled off to one side, due to uneven downward pull of the threads.

Collar - The raised ridge on a bottle located between the screw-threads and the shoulder; also known as the Bead.

Cork - Tree bark utilized to produce a very functional bottle closure.

Cover Groove - A groove on the top of a closure or lid that receives the bail and keeps the closure from slipping.

Continuous Thread (CT) Closure - Closure with a non-interrupted thread which beings at the bottom of the skirt and continues upward toward the liner.

 

Decanter – Highly decorative, indefinitely reusable bottles typically made for dispensing liquor or wine.

Deep Skirt Cap - Cap having a deeper skirt and generally heavier thread than the 400 finish series; also known as a Deep Screw Cap.

Density - Weight per unit volume of a substance, expressed in grams per cubic centimeter, pounds per inch, etc.

Diameter - Straight line passing through the center of a circle or sphere and meeting the circumference or surface at each end.

Dip Tube - The plastic tube of a pump or atomizer that goes down into the bottle; also known as a stem.

Disc Lid - A type of dispensing cap that opens with a rocking motion; pushing down on one side of the cap allows the dispensing side of the cap which contains a small orifice to pop up.

Dispenser Pump - A large dispensing pump which offers controlled output for a precise dosage of product; most commonly used for food products and normally can be used in conjunction with half gallon or one gallon jugs.

Dispensing Closure - Closure designed to be used to apply the contents of a container, such as a disc lid, treatment pump, etc.

Dome - A closure that has a rounded surface.

Dram - A unit of apothecaries’ weight, equal to 60 grains, or 1/8 ounce.

Dropper Cap - Closure that includes a dropper and a rubber bulb.

 

Figural Bottle – A bottle molded in the shape of things – animal (including human), vegetable, mineral, etc.

Fill Point - Level to which a container must be filled to furnish a designated quantity of the contents.

Finish - The finish is typically everything above the distinctive upper terminus of the neck, and refers to the combination of the lip, and collar usually shaped to accommodate a specific closure. For containers with threads it can refer to the area from the base of the threads to the opening of a container.

Fitment - Device used as part of a closure assembly to accomplish a certain purpose such as dropper, sprinkler, powder shakers, etc.

Flask - Bottle originally designed to be portable and easy to carry and is typically oval or rectangular in cross-section and laterally compressed on two sides.

Flint - A term used to describe a glass color which is clear and transparent.

Flip-Top - A type of spout dispensing cap that has a small stem with an orifice on the top of the lid, which flips up and down with the flick of finger; more commonly known as a Turret.

Fluid Ounce - A measure of capacity equal to 1/16 pint or 1.8047 cubic inches (29.573 milliliters) in the U.S., and equal to 1/20 of an imperial pint, or 1.7339 cubic inches (28.413 milliliters) in Great Britain.

Fruit Jar - Glass jar in which food is preserved, typically having a wide mouth for access; more commonly known as Canning Jars.

Funnel - Cone-shaped utensil with a tube at the apex for conducting liquid or other substance through a small opening, as into a bottle, jug, or the like.

F217 Liner - A three-ply liner composed of a low density foam core between two solid layers of low density polyethylene.

 

Gasket - A liner applied between the sealing surface of the container and the closure to provide an airtight seal.

Gate - Orifice through which the molten resin of a enters the cavity.

Gram - Metric unit of mass equal to one thousandth of a kilogram; equivalent to 15.432 grains or 0.002 205 pounds.

Green Glass - Longtime glassmaker term for glass with a variably aqua coloration from the naturally occurring iron in the sand used for making glass.

 

HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) - Polyethylene consisting mainly of linear, or unbranched, chains with high crystallinity and melting point, and density of 0.96 or more, produced at low pressure and used chiefly for containers and articles made by injection molding.

Head Space - Space between the level of the contents in the neck of a container and a closure.

Heel - Lowest portion of the container where the body begins to curve into the base; also known as the Insweep.

 

Inch - Unit of length, 1/12 foot, equivalent to 2.54 centimeters.

Inner Seal - Additional seal applied to the land area of the finish prior to, or during the application of the closure.

 

Jar - Container used to contain liquid or substance which has a neck with a diameter that is close or equal to the diameter of the body.

Jug - Large container commonly having a handle, a narrow neck, and sometimes a cap or cork.

 

Land - The lip of the container to which the closure liner or land seal compresses.

LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene) - Highly branched polyethylene with low crystallinity and melting point, and a density of 0.91 to 0.94, prepared at very high pressures, and used mainly for sheeting, films, and packaging materials.

Light Resistance - Ability of plastic material to withstand exposure to light, usually sunlight or the ultraviolet part of the light spectrum, without change of color or loss of physical and/or chemical properties.

Liner - A gasket or paper, cork, foam, plastic, etc., retained to provide a flexible barrier between the closure and the sealing surface of the container.

Liner Well - The space provided in a closure for a liner.

Lip - Extreme upper surface of the finish; also known as the rim.

Lotion Pump – Dispensing pump which offers controlled output for a precise dosage of product; more suitable for viscous materials, such as lotions, liquid soaps and shampoos as well as pharmaceutical, cosmetic and other health and beauty products.

Lug - A type of thread configuration designed so the thread segments are disposed equidistantly around the neck. The closure has matching portions that engage each of the thread segments.

Lug Cap - A closure with raised internal impressions that inter-mesh with identical threads on the finish of the container.

 

Matte Finish - A coating surface that displays no gloss when observed at any angle, also referred to as a “flat finish”.

Mil - Unit of measurement equal to 0.001 of an inch.

Milliliter (ml) – Unit of capacity equal to one thousandth of a liter, and equivalent to 0.033815 fluid ounce.

Mold - The cavity or matrix into which resin is placed and from which it takes its form.

Mold Seam - A vertical line formed at the point of contact of the mold halves. The prominence of the line depends on the accuracy with which the mating mold halves are matched.

Mouth - The open end of the cap opposite the top.

Multi-Layer Bottle - A bottle that is co-extruded with two or more layers to contain oxygen sensitive foods or industrial chemicals.

 

Narrow Mouth - A finish of a container in which the diameter is small relative to the diameter of the body.

Natural Color - Term used to describe the natural material of a plastic container or closure which is translucent.

Neck – The part of a container where the shoulder cross section area decreases to form the finish.

Neck Ring - The part of the mold equipment that forms the finish of the bottle.

 

Oblong - Refers to the shape of a general line container where the top and bottle ends are rectangular in shape with rounded corners.

Opaque - Term used to describe a material or substance that will not transmit light.

Orifice - An opening in a dispensing closure, plug, or fitment from which the product is dispensed.

Ounce - A unit of weight equal to 437.5 grains or 1/16 pound (28.349 grams) avoirdupois; or a unit of 480 grains, 1/12 pound (31.103 grams) troy or apothecaries' weight.

Overcap - Term used to describe a cap which is used to cover the primary closure, sprayer, or other dispensing system.

 

Parting Line - A mark on a molding or casting where the halves of the mold meet in closing.

PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) - Known as thermoplastic polyester. PET has the unusual ability to exist in either an amorphous or highly crystalline state. The crystalline state is necessary for extruding the material. The amorphous state permits it to be oriented.

Phenolic - The generic name for phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting plastic that is molded or cast.

Pipette - Glass or plastic tube portion of a medicinal dropper closure.

Pitch - Number of turns a thread would circle a neck if the next were extended one inch. The Pitch is commonly referred to as threads per inch.

Plastisol - A liquid mixture of resins and plasticizers solidified by the application of heat.

Polycone - Black phenolic lid with a conical shaped liner made of an oil-resistant plastic. This lid is perfect for chemicals, solvents, oils, essential oils, cleaners and more.

Polyolefins - Primarily those polymers that are flame treated.

Polyethylene - A thermoplastic material composed of polymers of ethylene. It is normally translucent, tough, waxy solid unaffected by water and a large range of chemicals.

Polypropylene - A tough, light-weight rigid plastic made by the polymerization of high-purity propylene gas in the presence of an organometallic catalyst at relatively low pressures and temperatures.

Polystyrene - A water-white thermoplastic produced by the polymerization of styrene (vinyl benzene).

Pour Spout - A dispensing spout used for pouring and measuring control when dispensing oil, vinegar, dish soap or other liquids. They also help reduce drips and spills.

Pressure Sensitive Seal - Additional seal applied to the land area of the finish prior to, or during the application of the closure; which adheres to the finish with the pressure of the application of the closure.

Pump - An apparatus for raising fluids by means of a piston, plunger, or set of rotating vanes.

Push-Up - The recessed area on the bottom of a bottle designed to allow an even bearing surface on the outside edge to prevent the bottle from rocking.

PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) - A thermoplastic material composed of polymers of vinyl chloride. PVC is a colorless solid with outstanding resistance to water, alcohols, and concentrated acids and alkalines.

 

Reducer – A fitment, usually plastic, which when placed into the mouth of a container reduces the orifice opening on the container.

Rigaree - Parallel lines of ribbons added as decoration to the sides of bottles and glassware.

Rim - The extreme upper surface of the finish where the throat begins, also known as the lip.

 

Screw Threads (inside or internal) - Finish type where the screw threads for holding the closure are formed or tooled on the inside of the finish.

Screw Threads (outside or external) - Finish type where the screw threads for holding the closure are formed or tooled on the outside of the finish.

Shoulder – The portion of the bottle which lies between the point of change in vertical tangency of the body and the base of the neck. Similar to the heel of a bottle, the shoulder is a transition zone between two other major portions of a bottle.

Shrink Band - A piece of PVC plastic that, with the application of heat, can be heat shrunk to secure a closure onto a container.

Shrink Capsule - Tinfoil secondary cover closure that shrinks with the application of heat to cover the closure and finish of a bottles product.

Sifter Fitment - A plastic component which is part of a package closure system that is designed to allow the product, usually dry ingredients, to be dispensed by shaking.

Silk Screen Printing - Method which involves laying a pattern of an insoluble material in outline on a finely woven fabric, so that when ink is drawn across it, it is able to pass through the screen in the desired area only.

Skirt - The vertical wall of a closure; also see Closure Skirt.

Sleeve Labels - Printed polyethylene slip-on labels.

Snap Fit Closure - A closure held in place through the use of beads or undercuts rather than threads.

Spilt-Top Lid - A closure which once applied to a container, has two sides which can flip open separately; usually one side is open and the other contains a shaker type dispenser.

Sprayer - An apparatus or device that breaks up water or other liquid into minute droplets blows, or ejects it through the air.

Sprinkler Finish - A bottle finish that is made when the bottle is molded and features a very small bore or mouth that facilitates the "sprinkling" of the contents.

Spout Cap - A closure designed to facilitate the pouring of the contented of the container.

Stacker Cap - A closure designed to nest with the bottom plate of a container to facilitate stacking of filled containers one on top of another.

Stem - The plastic tube of a pump or atomizer that goes down into the bottle; also known as a dip tube.

Stopper - A plug, cork, bung, or other piece for closing a bottle, tube, drain, or the like.

Straight Sided - Round container that had the same top and bottom diameter.

 

Tamper Band - The tamper-evident feature of the closure; usually connected to the closure skirt by leaders or bridges.

Tamper Evident - Any device which shows visible signs that a container has been opened.

Tamper Evident Breakaway Band Closure - Section of the closure skirt that is weakened or perforated in some manner when the closure is opened. Designed to reveal removal of the closure was attempted.

Tamper Evident Closure - Closure or liner system incorporating a feature that visually indicates if the closure has been removed or the product has been exposed. Removal of the closure or liner system activates the indicating feature.

Tamper Evident Tear Band - A closure with a band, usually with a tab for grasping, designed to be detached by the consumer. Designed to reveal removal of the closure was attempted.

Thread - Helical protrusions on the closure and the container.

Thread Engagement - Actual contact made by the closure and bottle finish thread; usually specified in number of turns.

Thread Start - Position at which the full thread depth toward the open end of the closure first occurs.

Thread Turns - Measurement of thread revolutions in a closure or on a container finish.

Tin - Low-melting, malleable, ductile metallic element nearly approaching silver in color and luster.

Torque - Amount of circular force applied to a closure to seal or open the container.

Treatment Pump - Dispensing pump which offers the most controlled output for a precise dosage of product; commonly used for moisturizers, wrinkle creams, eye creams, essential oils and other fine cosmetic products.

Trigger Sprayer – A device that attaches to a spray bottle to allow a product to be dispensed in a fine or coarse spray; and has a trigger mechanism off the bottom which is pulled versus pushed.

Tube - A hollow, usually cylindrical body of metal, glass, rubber, or other material, used especially for conveying or containing its contents.

Turret - A type of spout dispensing cap that has a small stem with an orifice on the top of the lid, which flips up and down with the flick of finger; also known as a Flip-Top lid.

 

Unlined Closure - Closure without a liner disk inserted, but designed to accept one.

Vial - A small container for holding liquid.

Volume - The amount of space, measured in cubic units, that an object or substance occupies.

Wide Mouth - Containers with large finish opening or those that have a large finish size in relation to capacity.

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